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The capayanes were an indigenous people nowadays deceased that lived in argentine territory today. .
His geographical area was partly of the provinces of La Rioja, Catamarca,San Juan, from the mountainous zone understood between the limit of La Rioja with Catamarca on Colorado river and the surroundings of Jáchal river-Zanjón, in San Juan, including Andes, in the western part, up to the cords of the Velasco, where they were mixed by the Diaguitas. They occupied the fertile valleys of Famatina, Sanagasta, Yacampis, Guandacol and Jáchal. They had as neighbors, in the northern part to the diaguitas and in the southern part to the huarpes.
They were sharing (with the diaguitas or paziocas) the language Kakán Or a derivation of this one. Vestiges of his language are in completions as bis, wee or small stone, for example: Yacampis, Quilmebis, Guanchina, etc.
They knew the technology of the thread, were weaving wool of guanacoand llamas that were producing. Also they knew the metallurgy of the copper and gold. They constructed channels and irrigation ditches to water his farmlands. Between his cultures they were the maize, zapallo, potato and quínoa. They used widely the ceramics, principally in the funeral urns, decorated geometrically with the colors black, red and white, known as Sanagasta style or Angualasto style.
About 1480, the Incas invaded the region of the diaguitas and capayanes, incorporating his territories into the Inca Empire (Tawantinsuyu). From 1607, with the Spanish domination it began his dispersion and later extinction at the end of the 18th century. The capayanes took part of the general raising of 1632 together with the olongastas and other diaguitas.
In the present a Catamarca's department takes his name (See Capayán Department).
Etymology and ethnic filiation
The etymology of the name started to this people seems to be the word rune simi Kapak ñan (Great way), that is to say usually so called " Way of the Inca ", the explanation for this would be in that the territory that they were living age sedates of a knot of communications very importantly in the south of the Tawantinsuyu. The majority of the authors considers the capayán due to the cultural common features (for example the use of the language kakán) as one of the parts of the pazioca ("diaguitas"), in the same way that it were the calchaquíes, olongastas, quilmes, though they would have differed for the genetic and cultural influence of the neighbors huarpes and after 1480 for the presence of Mitmakuna deported persons up to the region for the Incas, many of such mitimaes would have trade and manufacture of alcoholic maize drink and churumata.