Ministry of Education (Peru)
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The Ministry of Education in Peru was created on February 4, 1837, in times of fervor caudillista and republican agitation of a country that arises to the independent life, don Andrés de Santa Cruz, Captain general and President of Bolivia, Big Pacifying Marshall of Peru, Supreme Protector of the States South and Nor Peruanos decides to create a Department with the title of Department of Public Instruction, Charity and Ecclesiastic Business.
The promulgation of the Decree
- I. That, for the biggest advance of the public education, to which the Government contracts the most scrupulous attention, his most determined protection, it is convenient to separate the business belonging to this branch, of which they get out of debt for the Department of the Interior.
- The II. That for the homogeneity of this branch of the administration with the ecclesiastic business and the relative ones to the Charity, it would be suitable to assemble the three in a Department exclusively destined for his office.
It delivered a judgment:
- Art. 1.-creates to Himself a Department with the title of Department of public Instruction, Charity and Ecclesiastic Business, for which there will serve themselves all the matters relative to these three ramifications.
- Art. 2.-There Will be in this Department an official 1ero., the 2nd one. and one 3ero. That runs with the file and a doorman. Two of them will be extracted of the Department of the Interior and they all will enjoy equal salary that the employees in this one of the same class.
- Art.3. - The Minister of State of the office of the Interior remains entrusted of the execution of this decree, and of ordering it to print, to publish and to circulate.
Given in the Palace protectoral of Lima, on February 4, 1837. Signed by Andrés Santa Cruz by order of S.E. José Maria Galdiano ". (It is a faithful copy of the original one that Nro appears in the " ECHO OF THE PROTECTORATE ". 50).
The Department originally called of Public Instruction, Charity and Ecclesiastic Business, is provided proudly with three employees. On the following day the chart increased with the appointment of the first Minister of the Sector, the Presbítero doctor Manuel Gaspar de Villarán and Loli. On having divided equally the XIXth century, General Castilla promulgates the first Regulation of Education, which establishes the separation between public and private education, at the same time the school Guadalupe is declared National school and the professorship as public career is established.
Some additional milestones:
- Don Mariano Ignacio Prado in 1866 regulates the Higher education and Sunday free schools are established.
- With Don José Balta in 1870, free schools settle in the capitals of districts.
- With Manuel Pardo in 1872 and from now on, big impulse happens to the education, creating to him the Schools of Agriculture, Engineering, Industry and Fine arts.
- Later, Mariano Ignacio Prado in 1876-1877 organizes the Normal School of Women and that of Males.
- On having begun this century with Eduardo López de Romaña, the Organic Law of Public Instruction happens, including the Top Council of Instruction and the first Fiscal Schools are established.
- During the successive governments, the legislation of the sector education suffers many transformations. This way, for example, in 1907, during the Government of Brown and Barreda, the Secondary Instruction is established in five years.
- In 1935, Justice and Worship come undone of the Department of Education (Oscar R. Benavides).
- In 1941, it is established the Day of the Teacher under the government of Manuel Prado y Ugarteche.
- With Manuel Odría between the year 1948 and 1953, he constructs himself the building of the University Park, creates to him the system of Palms Magisteriales, and many schools and school units are constructed for men and women, as well as four military schools.
- In 1971, the National Institute of Culture is created as Public Decentralized Organism.
- In the decade of the 70s, one tests a complex and ambitious project of reform that gives birth to a leafy normatividad. Big impulse happens to the Initial Education and from the 80s, also to the development of the Higher education.
- From 1980 to 1985, there is established the so-called quinquennium of the education (the second Government of Belaúnde Terry. From 1990, there happens a new Law of the Professorship and his Regulation.
- In 1991, when he declares himself in reorganization to all the entities of the Public Sector, there begins the rationalization of the teaching and administrative personnel of the Department
- In 1992, there is transferred the National Institute of Educational Infrastructure (INIED) to the Department of the Presidency. There is promulgated the new Organic Law of the Department of Education, the Law of Communal Participation in the Management and Educational Administration, and the Law of Improvement of the Quality and Enlargement of the Coverage of the Peruvian Education.
- In 1993, there are promulgated a new regulation of Organization and Functions of the Department, and the rationalization becomes effective with the cessation of workpeople of the sector, for reorganization. From then the Peruvian education has experienced big changes and enormous progresses as for infrastructure and quality, although it is still great what stays for advancing.
In the Trajectory of the Department of Education there was, for diverse political and economic circumstances, both, gaps and moments of big stellar sheen and the out-standing ministers. For example, when he was the Minister Agustín Guillermo Charún (1839), Don Benito Lazo, the doctor Manuel Pérez de Tudela in 1845, the latter author of the Record of the Independence. In 1851, during the Government of Echenique Don Bartolomé Blacksmith he was nominated an Education Secretary, and in 1867 Don Simeón Tejada was named by Don Mariano Ignacio Prado.
Other illustrious names that paraded this Department during the present century
- José Manuel Polar, in 1906
- Manuel Vicente Villarán, in 1909
- José Balta, in 1914
- Mariano N. Cornejo, in 1919
- José Riva Agüero. in 1934
- Ernesto Montagne, between 1935 and 1939
- Pedro M. Olivera, between 1940 y1943
- Lino Cornejo, in 1943
- Jorge Basadre, between 1945 and 1956 and between 1957 and 1958
- Luis E. Valcárcel, during 1945,1946 y1947
- Cristobal Lozada y Puga, in 1947
- Carlos Rodríguez Pastor, in 1955
- Francisco Pease Olivera, in 1963
- Francisco Miro Quesada Cantuarias, during 1963 and 1964