The Peruvian National Anthem is the national anthem of Peru. This anthem was adopted in 1821.
After Peru declared its independence, the general José de San Martín began a public contest to select the National March, which was published on 7 August 1821 in the Gaceta Ministerial (Ministerial Gazette). The contest called upon professors of poetry, composers and general aficionados, to send their signed productions to the Ministry of the State before 18 September, the day in which a designated commission would decide which of them would be adopted as the "National March". The author of the selected composition would be compensated with the government's and the public's gratitude.
Seven compositions were entered, and on the prefixed day, they were reviewed and played in the following order:
- The music of the battalion major "Numancia"
- That of master Alcedo
- That of master Guapaya
- That of master Tena
- That of master Filomeno
- That of Father Aguilar, master of the Augustine Chapel
- Another entry of master Alcedo, at the behest of a brother of the Convent of Saint Domingo
After hearing the last production of master José Bernardo Alcedo, General José de San Martín stood up and exclaimed, "Without a doubt, this is the National Anthem of Peru". The following day, a signed decree confirmed this opinion expressed in the midst of great enthusiasm and jubilation. The anthem was first performed publicly in the night of 23 September 1821 in the Theater of Lima, in the presence of San Martín and the supporters of the independence, who on that day reunited in the capital. The beautiful voice of lady Rosa Merino, was the first to intone the anthem, from the original verses from the poet Don José de la Torre Ugarte from Ica. Upon hearing the music and the lyrics of the National Anthem for the first time, the audience responded with a standing ovation directed at Alcedo, who conducted the orchestra.
Diverse publications of the anthem had subtle modifications in the lyrics and the music, which was then restored by Claudio Rebagliati in 1869 at the behest of Alcedo. In 1874 there was a solicitation which asked for a revision to the lyrics of the anthem, in light of the various versions in circulation, as well as the minor mistakes which were found. This initiative was approved, but did not prosper, due to the rejection that it generated in the public opinion at its core and the recognition that it had already become a time honored tradition.
In 1901 there was another intent to reform the anthem, this time approved by the administration of Eduardo López de Romaña, who approved of the music of the restored anthem by Claudio Rebagliati. He declared a new contest to select new lyrics as he considered the original lyrics as aggressive towards Spain, which at the time had amiable relations with Peru. The winner of the contest was the poet José Santos Chocano, whose verses along with the same chorus went on to be sung in public schools and in public venues. It was not long until public opinion once again asked for the original lyrics to be restored. Public pressure was so great that the Peruvian Congress was obligated in 1913 during the administration of Don Guillermo Billinghurst to declare untouchable the lyrics as well as the chorus of the National Anthem.
In 1959, at the behest of Raúl Porras Barrenechea, Chabuca Granda composed a new replacement for the first verse in the anthem, but this was never implemented:
- Gloria enhiesta en milenios de historia
- fue moldeando el sentir nacional
- y fue el grito de Túpac Amaru
- el que alerta, el que exige
- y el que impele, hacia la libertad.
- Y el criollo y el indio se estrechan
- anhelantes de un único ideal
- y la entrega de su alma y su sangre
- dio el blanco y los rojos
- del emblema que al mundo anunció
- que soberano se yergue el Perú.
- Para gloria de Dios.
- Glory erected in millenia of history
- molded the national feeling
- and was the yell of Túpac Amaru
- which alerts, which demands
- and which impels, towards liberty.
- And the creole and the Indian embrace
- yearning for a single ideal
- and the sacrifice of their soul and blood
- gave the white and reds
- of the emblem that announced to the world
- that Peru rises sovereign.
- For glory of God.
The last attempt to change the anthem was during the administration of General Juan Velasco Alvarado who attempted to change the second and third stanzas. In similar form to previous attempts, it was imposed during official ceremonies and in schools and the last stanza was sung instead of the first. But this attempt also had no success and the original anthem was once again sung.
The Constitutional Tribunal determined in June 2005 that the first stanza in the anthem (Largo tiempo...) was not written by José de la Torre Ugarte and that was just a popular folklore, but its insertion into the history of the anthem expressed the will of the people represented in Law N° 1801 passed by Congress which declares it an intangible subject. The Constitutional Tribunal also verified that the fifth stanza had been excluded in the original anthem and considering author's rights and the integrity of the piece, it was ordered that the fifth stanza be restored into the official anthem as the sixth stanza with a total of seven stanzas making up the official national anthem.
- Somos libres, seámoslo siempre,
- y antes niegue sus luces el sol
- que faltemos al voto solemne
- que la patria al Eterno elevó.
- Largo tiempo el peruano oprimido
- la ominosa cadena arrastró;
- condenado a cruel servidumbre
- largo tiempo en silencio gimió.
- Mas apenas el grito sagrado
- ¡Libertad! en sus costas se oyó,
- la indolencia de esclavo sacude,
- la humillada cerviz levantó.
- Y al estruendo de broncas cadenas
- que escuchamos tres siglos de horror,
- de los libres al grito sagrado
- que oyó atónito el mundo, cesó.
- Por doquier San Martín inflamado,
- libertad, libertad, pronunció,
- y meciendo su base los Andes
- la anunciaron, también, a una voz.
- Con su influjo los pueblos despiertan
- y cual rayo corrió la opinión;
- desde el istmo a las tierras del fuego,
- desde el fuego a la helada región.
- Todos juran romper el enlace
- que Natura a ambos mundos negó,
- y quebrar ese cetro que España
- reclinaba orgullosa en los dos.
- Lima cumple ese voto solemne,
- y, severa, su enojo mostró,
- al tirano impotente lanzando,
- que intentaba alargar su opresión.
- A su esfuerzo saltaron los grillos
- y los surcos que en sí reparó,
- le atizaron el odio y venganza
- que heredara de su Inca y Señor.
- Compatriotas, no más verla esclava.
- Si humillada tres siglos gimió,
- para siempre jurémosla libre,
- manteniendo su propio esplendor.
- Nuestros brazos, hasta hoy desarmados
- estén siempre cebando el cañón,
- que algún día las playas de Iberia
- sentirán de su estruendo el terror.
- Excitemos los celos de España
- pues presiente con mengua y furor
- que en concurso de grandes naciones
- nuestra patria entrará en parangón.
- En la lista que de éstas se forme
- llenaremos primero el reglón
- que el tirano ambicioso Iberino,
- que la América toda asoló.
- En su cima los Andes sostengan
- la bandera o pendón bicolor,
- que a los siglos anuncie el esfuerzo
- que ser libres por siempre nos dio.
- A su sombra vivamos tranquilos,
- y al nacer por sus cumbres el sol,
- renovemos el gran juramento
- que rendimos al Dios de Jacob.
- We are free, may we always be so,
- and let the sun rather deny its light
- Than allow us to break the solemn vow
- which the motherland elevated to the Eternal.
- For a long time the oppressed Peruvian
- dragged the ominous chain;
- sentenced to a cruel servitude
- for a long time in silence he moaned.
- But as soon as the sacred cry of
- "Liberty!" was heard on its coasts,
- he shook off the indolence of slavery,
- he raised the humiliated neck.
- Now the roar of rough chains
- that we had heard for three centuries of horror
- from the free, at the sacred cry
- that the world heard astonished, ceased.
- Everywhere the inflamed San Martín
- "Liberty", "Liberty" pronounced;
- and the Andes, rocking their base,
- announced it as well, in unison.
- With its influx the peoples woke up,
- and like lighting ran the opinion;
- from the Isthmus to Tierra del Fuego,
- and from Tierra del Fuego to the icy region.
- Everyone vowed to break the link
- that Nature denied to both worlds,
- and break the sceptre that Spain
- had reclined, proud, on both.
- Lima fulfilled this solemn vow,
- and, severe, her anger showed
- by throwing out the powerless tyrant,
- who had been trying to extend his oppression.
- On her endeavor the shackles cracked,
- and the furrows that she had repaired in herself
- stirred up her hatred and vengeance,
- inherited from her Inca and Lord.
- Countrymen, may we see her a slave no more.
- If for three centuries she moaned, humiliated,
- forever may we vow that she be free,
- maintaining her own splendor.
- Our arms, until today unarmed,
- be they always readying the cannon,
- that some day the beaches of Iberia
- will feel the horror of its roar.
- May we arouse the jealousy of Spain
- since it has a premonition, with want and furor,
- that in a contest of great nations
- our country will enter in comparison.
- On the list formed by these
- we shall fill the line first,
- ahead of the ambitious Iberian tyrant,
- who devastated all of America.
- On its summit may the Andes sustain
- the two-color flag or standard,
- may it announce to the centuries the effort
- that gave us being free forever.
- Under its shadow may we live calmly
- and, at the sun's birth over its summits,
- may we renew the great oath
- we rendered to the God of Jacob.
da:Somos libres, seámoslo siempre
de:Somos libres, seámoslo siempre
es:Himno Nacional del Perú
eo:Nacia Himno de Peruo
fr:Somos libres, seámoslo siempre
it:Somos libres, seámoslo siempre
jv:Somos libres, seámoslo siempre
nl:Somos libres, seámoslo siempre
no:Somos libres, seámoslo siempre
pt:Hino nacional do Peru
qu:Piruwpa llaqta takin
fi:Somos libres, seámoslo siempre
sv:Somos libres, seámoslo siempre